Top Ten Discoveries Related to the Book of Judges

“Again the Israelites did evil in the eyes of the LORD…” (Jdg 10:6)

The book of Judges largely records Israel’s early history in Canaan after the initial Conquest victories. It has been called an “Intermediate Period” in Israel’s history, a time of disunity after the unified leadership of Moses and Joshua.1 The Hebrew settlement in the land of Canaan was slow and sometimes ineffective, with numerous tribes failing to take possession of their allotted territory and living alongside the Canaanites. Finally, the book records the continuous cycles of disobedience, oppression, repentance and deliverance as God raised up judges to free the Israelites.

Some have suggested the book of Judges does not record authentic history. Israel Finkelstein, for example, states, “The Bible’s stirring picture of righteous Israelite judges – however powerful and compelling – has very little to do with what really happened in the hill country of Canaan in the Early Iron Age.”2 In contrast, Kenneth Kitchen has analyzed the biblical text and the archaeological evidence, concluding the books of Joshua and Judges are based in realia: “In short, along with many other details, there is no valid reason for denying the basic picture of an entry into Canaan, initial raids and slow settlement, with many incidental features that belong to that period…None of the aforementioned features could be simply invented without precedent in the seventh century or later.”3 Here are the top ten discoveries related to the book of Judges. Each affirms details in the book, suggesting that it accurately reflects the situation in Late-Bronze and Early-Iron-Age Canaan.

10. Amarna Tablets

“And the men of Judah fought against Jerusalem and captured it and struck it with the edge of the sword and set the city on fire” (Jdg 1:8).

The book of Judges actually begins with a continuation of the Conquest recording victories over various cities, such as Jerusalem (1:8), Hebron (1:10), Kiriath-sepher (1:11), Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron (1:18). Other attacks are implied in which the Israelites were not able to drive out the people, as with the Amorites who “pressed the people of Dan back into the hill country” (1:34).

The biblical description of this turbulent time in the land of Canaan is reflected in the Amarna tablets, a collection of diplomatic correspondence with Egypt from the reigns of Amenhotep III and Akhenatan. Discovered at el-Amarna, some of these tablets are letters from Canaanite city-states which were under Egyptian control at the time.4 In these letters, the rulers of the Canaanite city-states write to pharaoh requesting help to combat a group called the habiru/apiru who are attacking them. Habiru was used in ancient writings as a sociological term for “marauding nomads” or “bands of brigands.”5 The Canaanite rulers would have seen the Israelites as habiru and, while not every mention of habiru in the Amarna letters refer to the Hebrews, the ones that refer to the habiru in the central highlands, where the Israelites initially settled, likely do.6

Amarna Letter EA288, from Abdi-Heba, ruler of Jerusalem, warning pharaoh that the land has been lost to the apiru. Photo: Einsamer Schütze / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

Bryant Wood explains: “The most striking theme of the letters is that the apiru [habiru] were taking over the highlands of Canaan. The king of Gezer wrote, ‘So may the king, my lord, save his land from the power of the apiru’ (EA271). He also referred to the superiority of the apiru forces (EA299, cf. EA305). The king of Jerusalem was particularly distressed. He said, ‘the war against me is severe… apiru has plundered all the lands of the king…if there are no archers, lost are the lands of the king’ (EA286), “Milkilu and…the sons of Lab’ayu…have given the land of the king to the apiru’ (EA 287), ‘the land of the king is lost… the apiru have taken the very cities of the king’ (EA288), and ‘the land of the king deserted to the ‘apiru’ (EA290).’“7

These Amarna tablets likely refer to the attacks of the Israelites, which motivated the heads of Canaanite city-states writing to the Egyptian king for military assistance. Interestingly, the Amarna tablets seem to indicate that Egypt never sent help, which would make sense if their entire northern Army had recently perished in the Red Sea.

9. Jabin Tablet

“So on that day God subdued Jabin the king of Canaan before the people of Israel” (Jdg 4:23).

A coalition of Israelite tribes under the leadership of Deborah and Barak defeated Jabin, who reigned at Hazor (Jdg 4:2). It’s interesting to note that this is the second king of Hazor named Jabin; Joshua and the Israelites conquered a “Jabin, king of Hazor” almost 150 years earlier during the Conquest period (Josh. 11:1-11).

A cuneiform tablet from Hazor, addressed to the Jabin the king. Photo Credit: Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs

A cuneiform tablet addressed to Jabin, King of Hazor was discovered at Hazor during excavations in 1992; it dates to the 17-18th centuries BC.8 A second reference to Jabin-Adad, king of Hazor is known from the Mari Texts in the 18th centuries.9 When one combines these discoveries with the biblical references, it seems multiple kings who reigned at Hazor were named Jabin over a period of some 400 years. Two explanations have been suggested to account for this: it could be a dynastic title, with “Jabin, king of Hazor,” akin to “Pharaoh, king of Egypt” (Ex. 6:11), or it could be a dynastic name, similar to the way there were 11 pharaohs named Ramesses who ruled Egypt over a period of 200 years.

Moreover, just as Jabin was known as the “King of Hazor” (Judges 4:17) and “King of Canaan” (Judges 4:23, 24), there are numerous ancient examples of kings holding multiple titles simultaneously, such as some pharaohs in the Intermediate Periods who ruled a restricted area of Egypt, but claimed to be “King of south and north Egypt.”10

It is clear the writer of the book of Judges knew the correct title for the king of Hazor.

8. Destruction of Cities – Hazor, Shechem, and Gibeah

“And the hand of the people of Israel pressed harder and harder against Jabin the king of Canaan [ie. king of Hazor – Jdg 4:17], until they destroyed Jabin king of Canaan” (Jdg 4:24).

“And Abimelech fought against the city [of Shechem] all that day. He captured the city and killed the people who were in it, and he razed the city and sowed it with salt” (Jdg 9:45).

“Then the men in ambush hurried and rushed against Gibeah; the men in ambush moved out and struck all the city with the edge of the sword” (Jdg 20:37).

If the writer of the book of Judges is recording authentic history, one would expect to find some evidence of the Israelite destruction at some of the cities they conquered.

The account of the defeat of Jabin king of Hazor states that Israelites “destroyed Jabin king of Canaan.” (Jdg. 4:24). As Bryant Wood notes, “The destruction of the king implies the destruction of his city.”11  Yigal Yadin and Amnon Ben-Tor, both lead excavators at Hazor, discovered evidence of the destruction of the final Canaanite city by a huge conflagration in the 13th century B.C. (Late Bronze Age IIB/III).12  This is in addition to an earlier 15th-centruy destruction layer that is likely a result of Joshua’s conquest (Josh. 11:10-11).13 Interestingly, archaeologists discovered statues of both deities and dignitaries who’s heads and hands were intentionally broken off. This may have been a result of the Israelites carrying out Moses’ instructions to “cut down the idols of their gods” (Dt. 12:3).14

Broken pithoi and burnt beams were discovered in the 13th century BC destruction of the palace at Hazor. Photo: Courtesy of Amnon Ben-Tor / The Selz Foundation Hazor Excavations in Memory of Yigael Yadin and The Israel Exploration Society / http://www.hazor-excavations.org/tel-hazor-2017/

Shechem was not destroyed during the Conquest, but Abimelech “razed the city” during the period of the Judges. Excavations at Shechem have revealed that the Iron Age I city suffered a violent destruction. Lawrence Toombs, one of the excavators, summarized, “Many of the buildings in Fields VII and IX show traces of destruction by fire….The heaps of debris covering the Iron I city are silent witnesses to the completeness of Abimelech‘s vengeance.”15

An old photo Ancient Gibeah/Tell el-Ful. Photo: www.LifeintheHolyLand.com

Similarly at Tell el-Ful, identified as ancient Gibeah, traces of an Iron Age village that had been destroyed were unearthed by W.F. Albright. A salvage operation in 1964, led by Paul Lapp, determined the earliest occupation was dated to 1200-1150 BC, followed by a period of abandonment that lasted a little more than a century, which would be expected if the site had been destroyed.16

The destruction layers unearthed in excavations at Hazor, Shechem and Gibeah which date to the period of the Judges are consistent with details in the biblical text.

7. Migration of the Danites and Destruction of Laish

“But the people of Dan…came to Laish, to a people quiet and unsuspecting, and struck them with the edge of the sword and burned the city with fire.” (Jdg 18:27)

The tribe of Dan was originally allotted a parcel of land west of Jerusalem to the coast of the Mediterranean (Josh. 19:40-46; see also the reference to Dan staying by the ships in Jdg 5:17). At some point they lost their territory (Josh. 19:47), likely when the Philistines settled on the southwest coastal plane (ca. 1177 BC). After this the tribe, or a portion of it, moved north and conquered the city of Laish/Leshem, rebuilding it and renaming it Dan, after their ancestor (Josh. 19:47).

Tel Dan [ancient Laish] from the southeast. Photo: Ferrell Jenkins / BiblePlaces.com

Laish/Leshem/Dan has been identified as Tell el-Qadi, known more popularly as Tel Dan; it is located 40 km north of the Sea of Galilee at the foot of Mount Hermon. “Excavations since 1966 under the direction of Avraham Biran have revealed a prosperous Late Bronze Age culture, Str. VII, destroyed by fire early in the twelfth century B.C. This appears to be the city burned by the Danites (Judg. 18:27).”17 Furthermore, the excavations have revealed a dramatic change between the lavish urban city of the Late Bronze Age and the simple Iron I material culture. It appears the pervious population was replaced by a semi-nomadic group, whose settlement pits and collared-rim storage jars are consistent with other Israelite sites.18 Moreover, Kristen Davis notes, “While Late Bronze Laish’s cult artifacts reflect a religiously-oriented population, the Iron Age I at Dan distinctly lacks any cult artifacts…if Judges 18:27-29 is correct and the conquering population of Laish was the Israelite tribe of Dan, the lack of cult artifacts is expected, due to the nature of Israelite cult worship.”19

Simply put, the archaeological evidence of a distinct change in people groups at Tel Dan is consistent with the biblical description of the migration of the Danites and their conquest of Laish.

6. Eglon’s Palace at Jericho

“He gathered to himself the Ammonites and the Amalekites, and went and defeated Israel. And they took possession of the city of palms. And the people of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab eighteen years.” (Jdg 3:13-14).

During the period of the Judges, Eglon constructed a summer palace (Jdg 3:20) at the “city of palms,” another term for the city of Jericho (Deut. 34:3; 2 Chr. 28:15). It was here that Ehud presented tribute to Eglon before murdering the Moabite king (Jdg 3:17-22).

In the 1930’s, John Garstang led excavations at Jericho and unearthed a structure that he identified as the palace of Eglon.20  The Middle Building, as he called it, was constructed on Spring Hill, stratified between the Iron Age palace above and the storerooms of the earlier palace below.21 Though not as large as the other palaces, it nonetheless occupied the favored position in the city and was the residence for some privileged person. Bryant Wood notes, “An abundance of imported pottery and an inscribed clay tablet attest to a well-to-do occupant involved in administrative activities.”22 If Garstang’s interpretation is correct, then the Middle Building is likely Eglon’s palace and the site of his assassination by the hand of Ehud.  

The “Middle Building,” excavated in 1933 by John Garstang at Jericho. Photo: Associates for Biblical Research

5. Philistines on Battle Reliefs of Rameses III

“And the people of Israel again did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, so the LORD gave them into the hand of the Philistines for forty years.” (Jdg 13:1).

The Bible seems to use the term “Philistine” to refer to Aegean people from the area of Crete in any time period.23 While there are some references to Philistines in the book of Genesis which likely refer to an early wave of Aegean people who settled in the area (like the Caphtorites in Deut. 2:23), the primary references to the Philistines in the Bible are to those who were the frequent enemies of people of Israel (and Judah) during the Iron Age.

A relief of Philistine captives defeated by Rameses III from Medinet Habu. Photo: Rémih / Wikimedia Commons / GFDL

Aren Maeir, director of excavations at the site of the Philistine city of Gath explains, “They are identified with a cultural group(s) that is seen in the archaeological record of the Iron Age (ca. 1200-600 BCE) in the southern coastal plain region of Israel/Canaan/Palestine, particularly at the large sites of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron and Gath.”24

The Egyptian pharaoh, Rameses III, defeated a coalition of “Sea Peoples” that included Philistines early in his reign (ca. 1177 BC). He left a record of his victory in a relief on the northeast wall of his mortuary temple at Medinet Habu. Rameses III claims to have stopped the Sea Peoples at the border and forced them to settle elsewhere. The Philistines ended up settling on the southern coast of Canaan, right beside the people of Israel. 

The timing of this defeat and the settlement of the Philistines fits the biblical chronology for when we begin to see them as Israel’s enemies in the book of Judges.

4. Philistine Temples with Two Pillars

“And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and he leaned his weight against them, his right hand on the one and his left hand on the other. And Samson said, “Let me die with the Philistines.” Then he bowed with all his strength, and the house fell upon the lords and upon all the people who were in it. So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he had killed during his life.” (Jdg 16:29-30).

The book of Judges describes a unique Philistine temple design with two central pillars supporting the structure. Excavations have unearthed four Philistine temples to date that match the biblical description with two central pillars. In 1972, a Philistine temple was discovered at Tel Qasile. It consisted of two main parts, an ante-chamber and a main hall, with the structure measuring 26 ft wide by 47 ft long. Within the main hall, two round stone bases were found on which wooden pillars that supported the roof would have rested.25 Two further Philistine temples discovered at Tel Miqne (ancient Ekron), which have the same design: an antechamber and main hall with its roof supported by two central wooden pillars on stone bases placed along the center axis.26 A fourth Philistine temple was unearthed by Aren Maeir and his team at Tell es-Safi/Gath, which also contained two central pillars.27 More importantly, these pillars are typically 6-7 feet apart, making it possible for a large man to dislodge them from the stone bases. Unfortunately, the Philistine temple at Gaza has not yet been discovered because a modern city sits atop the ancient ruins. It is safe to assume that it would likely follow the layout of the other Philistine temples discovered.

This Philistine temple at Tel Qasile has two central pillars like the Philistine temple at Gaza that Samson brought down in Jdg 16:29-30. Photo: Oren Rozen / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0

The biblical account of Samson bringing down the temple at Gaza are consistent with what is known about Philistine temples from archaeology. This suggests the accounts were written by an eyewitness or someone living at that time who was familiar with the layout of Philistine temples, and not by a much later writer living in Babylon, as proposed by the (now outdated) documentary hypothesis.

3. Jerubbaal Inscription

“Therefore on that day Gideon was called Jerubbaal, that is to say, “Let Baal contend against him,” because he broke down his altar.” (Jdg 6:32).

In 2019, a Proto-Canaanite inscription written in ink on a pottery sherd was discovered at Khirbet al-Ra‘I. While only part of the inscription has survived, five of the letters indicate the personal name Yrb‘l ( Jerubba‘al).28 The sherd from a jug was unearthed in a silo in a level that dated to the late 12th or early 11th centuries BC, roughly the time of the Judges.

This ostracon from Khirbet er-Ra’I bears the name Jerubbaal, the same nickname given to the the biblical judge Gideon. Photo: Dafna Gazit / Israel Antiquities Authority

The name Jerubbaal is only ever used for one person in the Bible: Gideon. This is the first time it has been discovered in an archaeological context. Because of the rarity of the name, and the fact that the inscription dates to the period of the Judges, some believe this to be a reference to the biblical judge, Gideon. It would be wise, however to cautious about making such connections; it is impossible to know for certain if this inscription refers to the biblical judge without more information (ie. father’s name, title, or epithet). Still, this discovery is significant in that it affirms the name Jerubbaal was used during the time the Bible describes. Again, it is yet more evidence that the book of Judges was composed using material dating to the time of the events and not invented at a much later date.

2. Tower of Shechem (aka. the House of el-Berith)

“When all the leaders of the Tower of Shechem heard of it, they entered the stronghold of the house of El-berith.” (Jdg 9:46).

The remains of the ancient fortress temple at Shechem (rectangular structure in the center with a rounded courtyard towards the top). Photo: Bill Schlegel / BiblePlaces.com

The “House of El-berith” (literally, the “Temple of the Lord of the Covenant”) has been identified with a fortress temple discovered on the acropolis at Shechem. It was originally unearthed in 1926 by Ernst Sellin, but was more fully excavated between 1956 and 1973 by the Drew-McCormick Expedition, led by G. Ernest Wright of McCormick Theological Seminary and Robert Bull of Drew University. They identified the structure destroyed by Abimelech with a smaller temple (Temple 2) which had been built atop the earlier massive fortress temple (Temple 1). Lawrence E. Stager reanalyzed their work and believes the two “stray” walls, which formed Wright and Drew’s “Temple 2” were actually part of a later structure called the “Granary.” Thus, there was only one fortress-temple, in use for 500 years (from the 17th century BC to the 12th century BC).29

The House of El-berith (the fortress temple) is one of the largest ever discovered in Canaan, measuring 70 ft (21m) by 86 ft (26m), with foundations 17 ft (5m) thick.30 In front of the temple was a courtyard that contained an altar and a giant limestone massabah (sacred stone), which may have been the pillar where Abimelech was declared king (Jdg 9:6).31

This structure is almost certainly the site of the events of Judges 9:46-49.

1. Merneptah Stele

“When Joshua dismissed the people, the people of Israel went each to his inheritance to take possession of the land.” (Jdg 2:6) 

A granite bust of Merneptah. Photo: A.D. Riddle/BiblePlaces.com

In ca. 1208 B.C. the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah invaded the land of Canaan. Upon his return he erected a 10-foot-tall victory monument (a stele) in the temple at Thebes, boasting of his conquests. The Merneptah Stele contains the claim, “Israel is wasted, its seed is not; And Hurru (Canaan) is become a widow because of Egypt.”32

Merneptah’s campaign occurred during the period of the Judges and there are a number of interesting elements to his victory stele. First, Israel is listed along with cities in Canaan, such as Ashkelon and Gezer. The name of Israel, however, is the only one followed by the hieroglyphic symbol that denotes a people rather than a political entity.33 This, along with the structure of the inscription indicate that Egypt saw Israel as an ethnic or social group with no fixed boundaries in the land of Canaan and that they were powerful enough to be mentioned along with major city-states in the region.34

The Merneptah Stele. Photo Credit: Wellcome Images / Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY-SA-4.0

Moreover, Israel is presented in parallel with Hurru (Canaan): since Israel’s seed is not, all of Canaan is considered to have become a widow. The implication is that Egypt viewed Israel as the most powerful people group in Canaan during this period.35

The Merneptah stele deals mainly with his victory over the Libyans; only the last three lines deal with his campaign to Canaan. This, along with the fact that he only claims to have conquered Ashkelon, Gezer, Yanoam, and Israel implies a limited incursion. Merneptah certainly didn’t annihilate Israel, as history bears out. Still, the Merneptah Stele is important, as it established that Israel was already established as a significant people group in the land of Canaan in the 13th century BC, as described in the book of Judges. 

Conclusion

Despite the incomplete nature of the archaeological record and the general lack of inscriptions of any kind from this period in the Levant, these ten discoveries indicate that elements in the book of Judges are based in reality, not fantasy. The writer(s) of this book were familiar with the land and the cultural milieu of Canaan during the period of the Judges. While not the “proof beyond the shadow of a doubt” that many seek (unrealistically, given the limitations of archaeology), these discoveries can lead one to reasonably conclude the book of Judges contains the record of authentic history.

Cover Photo: Samson Slays 1,000 Philistines, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Endnotes:

1 K. A. Kitchen, On The Reliability of the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2006), 203-204.

2 Isarel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed. (New York: The Free Press, 2001), 122.

3 1 K. A. Kitchen, On The Reliability of the Old Testament. (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2006), 239.

4 William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters. (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1992), XXVI.

5 “Bands of Brigands” is a description for the Habiru that archaeologist Gary Byers prefers. Personal communication. Nov. 8, 2021.

6 S. Douglas Waterhouse, “Who are the Habiru of the Amarna Letters?” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 12/1 (2001): 31.

7 Bryant G. Wood, “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period.” Associates for Biblical Research. April 2, 2008. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/exodus-era/2403-from-ramesses-to-shiloh-archaeological-discoveries-bearing-on-the-exodusjudges-period (Accessed May 30, 2022).

8 “Excavation Report – Tel Hazor – 1992,” Hazor-Excavations.org. http://www.hazor-excavations.org/excavations-reports/tel-hazor-1992/ (Accessed April 16, 2019)

9 Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003), 175.

10 Ibid, 213

11 Bryant G. Wood, “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period.” Associates for Biblical Research. April 2, 2008. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/exodus-era/2403-from-ramesses-to-shiloh-archaeological-discoveries-bearing-on-the-exodusjudges-period (Accessed May 30, 2022).

12 Amnon Ben-Tor, “Who Destroyed Canaanite Hazor?” BAR 39:4 (July/August 2018), 28-30.

13 Bryan Windle, “Biblical Sites: Three Destructions at Hazor.” Bible Archaeology Report. https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2019/05/03/biblical-sites-three-discoveries-at-hazor/ (Accessed May 30, 2022).

14 “Deborah and Barak and the Destruction of Hazor,”NIV Archaeological Study Bible (ed. Walter C. Kaiser Jr and Duane Garrett; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 351.

15 Lawrence E. Toombs, “Shechem.” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. D.N. Freedman. (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 8098.

16 “Gibeah,” NIV Archaeological Study Bible (ed. Walter C. Kaiser Jr and Duane Garrett; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 380.

17 Bryant G. Wood, “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period.” Associates for Biblical Research. April 2, 2008. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/exodus-era/2403-from-ramesses-to-shiloh-archaeological-discoveries-bearing-on-the-exodusjudges-period (Accessed May 30, 2022).

18 Kristen Davis, “Cult Worship at Tel Dan,” Bible and Spade, (29:2 Spring/Summer 2016), 67.

19 Ibid, 67.

20 John Garstang and J.B.E. Garstang, The Story of Jericho. (London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott, Ltd.), 124.

21 Ibid, 178.

22 Bryant Wood, “Let the Evidence Speak.” Associates for Biblical Research. March 28, 2007. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/conquest-of-canaan/4137-let-the-evidence-speak (Accessed May 23, 2022).

23 Bryant G. Wood, “The Genesis Philistines.” Associates for Biblical Research. May 31, 2006. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/patriarchal-era/3640-the-genesis-philistines (Accessed May 27, 2022).

24 Bryan Windle, “Discussions with the Diggers: An Interview with Dr. Aren Maeir.” Jan. 7, 2022. https://biblearchaeologyreport.com/2022/01/07/discussions-with-the-diggers-an-interview-with-dr-aren-maeir/ (Accessed May 27, 2022).

25 Bryant G. Wood, “Samson and the House of Dagon.” Bible and Spade. Vol. 3, No. 2 (Spring 1974), 51.

26 Randall Price and H. Wayne House, Zondervan Handbook of Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2017), 113.

27 Aren Maeir, “View of Philistine temple and ‘Amos’ earthquake.” July 28, 2010. https://gath.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/view-of-philistine-temple-and-amos-earthquake/ (Accessed May 26, 2022).

28 Christopher Rollston, Yosef Garfinkel, Kyle H. Keimer, Gillan Davis, and Saar Ganor, “The Jerubba‘al Inscription from Khirbet al-Ra‘i: A Proto-Canaanite (Early Alphabetic) Inscription.” Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology 2: 8. Online: https://jjar.huji.ac.il/sites/default/files/jjar/files/rollston_et_al._2021_jjar_2_1-15.pdf (Accessed May 23, 2022).

29 Lawrence E. Stager, “The Shechem Temple: Where Abimelech Massacred a Thousand.” Biblical Archaeological Review. 29:4 (July/August 2003), 31.

30 “Abimelech at Shechem,”  NIV Archaeological Study Bible (ed. Walter C. Kaiser Jr and Duane Garrett; Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2005), 363.

31 Bryant G. Wood, “Abimelech at Shechem,” Bible and Spade (Spring 2005). Online: https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/israel-in-the-era-of-the-judges/4042-abimelech-at-shechem (Accessed May 24, 2022).

32 Gary Byers, “Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Merneptah Stele.” Associates for Biblical Research. March 15, 2006. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/conquest-of-canaan/4024-great-discoveries-in-biblical-archaeology-the-merenptah-stela (Accessed May 30, 2022).

33 Luke Chandler, “Israel in Archaeology: The Merneptah Inscription.” Feb. 12, 2016. https://lukechandler.wordpress.com/2016/02/12/israel-in-archaeology-the-merneptah-inscription/ (Accessed May 30, 2022).

34 Michael G. Hasel, “Israel in the Merneptah Stela.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 296 (1994): 45–61.

35 Bryant G. Wood, “From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period.” Associates for Biblical Research. April 2, 2008. https://biblearchaeology.org/research/chronological-categories/exodus-era/2403-from-ramesses-to-shiloh-archaeological-discoveries-bearing-on-the-exodusjudges-period (Accessed May 30, 2022).

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